Developing countries could benefit from lessons of education development in China. China has the world’s largest education system. Over the past three decades, China has made remarkable progress in universalizing compulsory education, expanding access at all levels, and reducing adult illiteracy. These achievements in education development have supported the country’s impressive economic growth by supplying a medium- to highly-skilled labor force. In addition to expanding education access, achieving high education quality has also been well recognized of China’s education system. The high performance of the students from the four provinces and municipalities in the recent Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a testament to the quality of education that the system can provide. Over its 37-year partnership with the World Bank in education, China has evolved from a recipient of financial and technical assistance to a major contributor to the world’s knowledge on education development.
The Belt and Road initiative of the Government of China is an ambitious effort to improve cross-border connectivity on a trans-continental scale and education has an important role to play. In its most common specification, the initiative aims to strengthen infrastructure, trade, and investment links between China and 64 other countries that account collectively for 30 percent of global GDP, 62 percent of population and 75 percent of known energy reserves. The initiative will also tackle poverty in recipient countries. Also known as The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road; or the One Belt and One Road Initiative (OBOR), The Belt and Road (B&R); and now as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). To ensure the success of the initiative, China is interested in supporting education. This is being done by strengthening exchange between China and the rest of the world but also through specific development projects, where education plays a relevant role. The Education Action Plan of the Belt and Road Initiative (https://eng.yidaiyilu.gov.cn/zchj/qwfb/30277.htm) aims to:
Executive Workshop on Education Development in Beijing. Under the support of the China World Bank Group Partnership Facility (CWPF), the World Bank is organizing a series of activities to assist developing countries of the Belt and Road Initiative achieve inclusive and sustainable education development through learning of global best practices – especially lesson learned from China. One of the main activities is to develop annual one-week “bootcamp” style workshops in collaboration with China Institute for Educational Finance Research (CIEFR) at Peking University (PKU). This workshop will be designed based on the theories and principles from the original courses and will put additional emphasis on developing country experience, in particular, case studies distilled from China’s education development. Each cohort is designed to include a mix of international participants and Chinese participants for optimal peer-learning. Both international and domestic participants are central and provincial government officials and education practitioners.
Topics and discussions covered at the workshop. During the workshop, the following critical questions will be explored and discussed: i) why government or individuals invest scare resources to finance and/or provide education? ii) what is the more effective way to provide the education service, is it through private or public providers, with traditional mechanism or innovative ones, supporting general or technical education, investing more early on or later in the life cycle? iii) who (including which level of governments) should finance higher education or other types and levels of education, what skills to promote from the education sector, what motivates the stakeholders in the education sector, how to guarantee equity in the education outcomes, what funding allocation mechanisms should be used for a program. The workshop will discuss elements that policymakers may consider when answering the above types of questions, more concretely within the following areas:
·Early Childhood Development, Early Education and Early Grade Reading
·Innovations in Financing Education
·Financing Compulsory Education
·Financing in Education: Challenges and Options
|18:00-18:15||Arrival and Registration|
Introduction of the Workshop and Participants
|18:45-19:45||Harry A. Patrinos (Practice Manager, Education, World Bank)|
An Overview of Education and Development
World Bank, 2018. World Development Report 2018. Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Overview.
Montenegro, C.E. and H.A. Patrinos. 2014. Comparable estimates of returns to schooling around the world. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7020
|Time||Issues in Early Childhood Development and Early Education|
|9:00-10:00||The Importance of Early Childhood Development|
Harry A. Patrinos (Practice Manager, Education, World Bank)
World Bank, 2018. World Development Report 2018. Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Spotlight 1: The biology of learning. Spotlight 2: Poverty hinders biological development and undermines learning. Chapter 3 The Many faces of learning. Chapter 5 There is no learning without prepared, motivated learners.
|10:15-11:15||Early Childhood Education in China Yingquan Song (Associate Professor, China Institute for Educational Finance Research, Peking University)|
Participants discuss in groups on the main messages from the presentations and prepare and present a 3 minutes presentation on one aspect based on the internal discussion
Moderator: Dandan Chen (Lead Economist, World Bank)
|14:00-14:45||Innovations in ECD: The Case of Yunnan|
Dandan Chen(Lead Economist, World Bank)
World Bank 2013. Early childhood education in Yunnan: challenges and opportunities.
|14:45-15:45||Early Grade Reading|
Eduardo Velez (Adjunct Professor, Georgetown University)
Abadzi, H. 2017. Turning a molehill into a mountain? How reading curricula are failing the poor worldwide. Prospects. March.
|16:00-17:15||Panel Discussion and Q&A Session.|
A panel, composed by the presenters, will discuss critical issues on childhood development and early education and early grade reading and will answer questions from the Plenary (moderated by N. Fu)
|Time||Issues in Compulsory Education|
|9:00-10:00||Compulsory Education Development in Shanghai: Experiences and Innovations|
Houqing Yin (Vice Director of Shanghai Education Commission, Director of Shanghai Education Association)
|10:00-11:00||Financing Compulsory Education|
Rong Wang (Director and Professor, China Institute for Educational Finance Research, Peking University)
40 minutes discussions, followed with 4 presentations, 5 minutes each
Moderator: Eduardo Velez
|14:00-15:00||Education Policy Making in China: Political Logic and Practical Consequence|
Mingxing Liu (Professor, China Institute for Educational Finance Research, Peking University)
Education Innovation in China
Lessons Learned from Shanghai Xiaoyan Liang (Lead Education Specialist, World Bank)
|16:15-17-15||Group discussion and Presentation|
|Time||Higher Education Development|
|9:00-10:00||China’s Higher Education Development Strategies: Summary and Reflection.|
Weifang Min (Executive President of Chinese Society for Education Development Strategies, Professor and Director of the Institute of Higher Education and the Institute of Economics of Education at Peking University)
The changing global landscape of higher education: issues and trends. Implications on the Belt and Road Initiative.
|11:15-12:15||Increasing Private Financial Resources in Education|
Kai-ming Cheng (Emeritus Professor, The University of Hong Kong)
|14:00-16:00||Middle School Visit|
|16:00-21:00||Excursion and Dinner|
|Time||Systems Approach to Education Financing|
|9:00-10:00||Autonomy Accountability and Assessment|
Harry A. Patrinos (Practice Manager, Education, World Bank)
World Bank, 2018. World Development Report 2018. Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Chapter 4. To take learning seriously, start by measuring it.
Patrinos, H.A., E. Velez and C.Y. Wang, 2013. “A Framework for Education Systems Reform and Planning for Quality.”
It also appeared in 2013 in Peking University Education Review, Vol. 11, No. 3. In Chinese.
|10:15-11:15||Decentralization and Centralization of Fiscal System and Education Finance Policy in China|
Mingxing Liu (Professor, China Institute for Educational Finance Research, Peking University)
Student Financial Aid
Jianguo Wei, Rong Wang, 2009, Student Loans Reform in China: Problems and Challenges.pdf
|14:00-15:00||Public-Private Partnerships in Education|
Harry A. Patrinos (Practice Manager, Education, World Bank) and Houqing Yin (Vice Director of Shanghai Education Commission, Director of Shanghai Education Association)
World Bank, 2018. World Development Report 2018. Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Chapter 9 Education systems are misaligned with learning
Patrinos, H.A, F. Barrera-Osorio and Guaqueta. 2009. The Role and Impact of Public-Private Partnerships in Education. World Bank, Washington, DC.
|15:15-16:15||Developing and Supporting Effective Teachers and Why It is Important with a Focus on EAP countries|
Javier Luque, (Senior Education Specialist, World Bank)
World Bank, 2018. Growing Smarter: Learning and Growth in East Asia and the Pacific. Chapter 5. Developing Skilled Teachers and Supporting Effective Teaching
World Bank, 2018. World Development Report 2018. Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Chapter 6. Teacher skills and motivation both matter (though many systems act like they don’t).
|16:15-17:15||Open Discussion Moderator: Eduardo Velez|
|Time||Technical Vocational Education and Training|
|9:00-10:00||A General View of TVET in China|
Zhao Zhiqun (Professor, Beijing Normal University)
|10:00-10:40||World Bank supported TVET activities in China and how they influenced national TVET policies|
Liping Xiao (Senior Education Specialist, World Bank)
World Bank, 2012. Jobs - World Development Report 2013, Chapter 5.
|10:50-11:30||Lessons learned from Yunnan’s TVET reforms Fu Tiezheng (Yunnan Project Management Office)|
|11:30-12:30||Question and Answer Moderator: Po Yang (Associate Professor, Graduate School of Education, Peking University)|
|14:00-15:00||Financing of TVET in China|
Po Yang (Associate Professor, Graduate School of Education, Peking University)
Recommendation Concerning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).pdf
D. Ashton, F. Green, J. Sung & D. James, 2002, The Evolution of Education and Training Strategies in Singapore, Taiwan and S. Korea: a development model of skill formation.pdf
Mun C. Tsang, 1997, The Cost of Vocational Training.pdf
|15:00-17:00||Group Discussion -- Sharing of local practices by participants|
Participants discuss in groups on the main messages from the presentations and discussion and prepare and present a 3 minutes presentation on one aspect based on the internal discussion
Moderator: Eduardo Velez
|17:00-17:15||Closing remarks Wang Rong (Director, CIEFR)|
Dandan Chen is a Lead Economist in the Education Global Practice. Dandan joined the World Bank in 1999, and has worked in Africa, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, and East Asia and Pacific Region. Dandan’s key areas of expertise include intra-household resource allocation and human capital investment; determinants of human development outcomes (both demand and supply factors); and labor supply and skill acquisition. Dandan’s operational work covers education system reform (from pre-school to tertiary education); entrepreneurship, innovation, and R&D; and training provision and skills development. Dandan holds PhD in economics (1999) from Duke University.
Eduardo Velez has a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Illinois. His areas of interest include Sociology and Economics of Education, and Analysis and Evaluation of Development Programs. Dr. Velez had a long trajectory at the World Bank in Washington D.C., Mexico City and in Beijing. He was Education Sector Manager for East Asia and the Pacific, and Education Sector Manager for Latin American and the Caribbean; Sector Coordinator (Human Development) for the China program; Sector Leader (Human and Social Development for Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela); and Human Development Cluster Leader for Uganda and Tanzania. Before joining the World Bank, Dr. Velez was Adjunct Director at Instituto Ser de Investigación in Bogotá, Colombia, his country of origin. Dr. Velez has also held an academic career. He has been a Visiting Professor at: Peking University, Beijing Normal University and Fudan University in China, Brown University and the University of Connecticut in USA; Kobe University in Japan; currently he is an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University. Dr. Velez has written extensively on the subjects of Economics, Education, Development and Sociology (has published nine books and more than 90 articles in professional journals or as chapters in books, and research reports).
Francisco Marmolejo is the World Bank’s Lead of its Global Solutions Group on Tertiary Education, and since July 2016 he also serves as the Lead Education Specialist for India, based in Delhi. In his capacity as the World Bank’s most senior official in tertiary education (also known as higher education in several countries), he serves as the institutional focal point on this topic, and provides advice and support to country-level related tertiary education projects that the Bank has in more than 60 countries. Before joining the World Bank in 2012, he served for 18 years as founding Executive Director of the Consortium for North American Higher Education Collaboration, a network of more than 160 tertiary education institutions primarily from Canada, the U.S. and Mexico, based at the University of Arizona (UA), where he also worked as Assistant Vice President. At UA, he was Affiliated Researcher at the Center for the Study of Higher Education, and Affiliate Faculty at the Center for Latin American Studies. Previously, he was an American Council on Education (ACE) Fellow at the University of Massachusetts, and also, he has been Vice President for Administration and Academic Vice President at the University of the Americas in Mexico.
Harry Anthony Patrinos is the Practice Manager for the East Asia & the Pacific region of the World Bank's education global practice. He specializes in all areas of education, especially school-based management, demand-side financing and public-private partnerships. He managed education lending operations and analytical work programs in Argentina, Colombia and Mexico, as well as a regional research project on the socioeconomic status of Latin America’s Indigenous Peoples, published as Indigenous Peoples, Poverty and Human Development in Latin America (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006). He is one of the main authors of the report, Lifelong Learning in the Global Knowledge Economy (World Bank, 2003). Mr. Patrinos has many publications in the academic and policy literature, with more than 40 journal articles. He is co-author of the books: Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study (St. Martin’s, 1999), Decentralization of Education: Demand-Side Financing (World Bank, 1997), and Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America: An Empirical Analysis with George Psacharopoulos (World Bank/Ashgate, 1994). He has also worked in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. He previously worked as an economist at the Economic Council of Canada. Mr. Patrinos received a doctorate from the University of Sussex.
Houqing Yin is Vice Director of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, former National Education Inspector, former Vice President of the Chinese Society of Education and President of Shanghai Education Association. Mr. Yin has worked as Vice Director of Education Popularization Department, Director of Shanghai Basic Education Office of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and executive Vice Director of the Inspection Office in Shanghai Municipal Government. He was appointed as the Director General of Social Development Bureau of Pudong District, Shanghai in 2003 and the Vice Director of Shanghai Municipal Education Committee in 2007. He is also a member of experts-team for primary and secondary school curriculum and teaching materials reform initiated by Ministry of Education. He has presided over a number of major reform programs in basic education and policies in Shanghai, including combination of the dual system in Pudong New Area, construction of the linkage mechanism in administration, operation and assessment, education policy design for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, public service system construction for Shanghai pre-school education, urban and rural basic education integration in Shanghai, Shanghai primary and secondary school curriculum reform, etc.
Javier Luque has extensive experience as an education economist. Javier Luque is an education expert at the World Bank office in Jakarta. Between 2012 and early 2017, Javier led the Inter-American Development Bank’s (IADB) education portfolio in El Salvador and Honduras, and supervised IADB’s education sector operations in Central America, Mexico and the Dominican Republic as the Focal Point for that region. He also worked extensively in Haiti. From 2007 to 2012, Javier worked at the World Bank in the education sector in East Asia and Latin America, focusing on Indonesia, the Dominican Republic and Mexico, and supporting operations and the research agenda across Latin America. Through his different assignments, Javier has been engaged in several aspects of education policy, including the provision of education services in rural areas, ICT in education, information systems and management, school finance, school to work transition, schools and violence, and, teacher policies. Prior to 2007, Javier worked as an economist at the Central Reserve Bank of Peru, the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the International Monetary Fund.
Javier has taught at the undergraduate and graduate level at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), Pacific University, University of Rochester, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, among others. He is currently assistant professor at PUCP (on leave). Javier produced publications in various fields of economics and economics of education. Among them, he co-authored: Achieving a World-Class Education in Brazil: The Pending Agenda (with Barbara Bruns and David Evans, World Bank, 2012), and Great Teachers: How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America (with Barbara Bruns, World Bank, 2014). He holds a Masters and Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Rochester.
Jianguo Wei is Deputy Director and Associate Professor at China Institute for Educational Finance Research. He graduated from Peking University with a Ph.D. in Law and has been a visiting scholar in Stanford University. His research focuses on education finance and law, fiscal and tax law. He was PI of The Central and Local Relationship Ruled by Law—Fiscal Dimension, project commissioned by China National Social Science Foundation, and Student Loan Repayment, Risk Control and Guarantee Institutions, project commissioned by Ministry of Education, among a number of research projects of which he has chaired. He has published The Central and Local Relationship Ruled by Law—Fiscal Dimension, and his articles are published in international and Chinese journals.
Kai-ming Cheng is Emeritus Professor at the University of Hong Kong. He was Chair Professor of Education, Dean of Education, Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Senior Advisor to the Vice-Chancellor of the University. At the administrative level, he worked in human resources and campus IT, but his major contribution was in fundraising and networking. He started the Development Office at HKU, among the first in Asia. He is now Director of Education Policy Unit at the Faculty of Education. He taught at the Harvard Graduate School of Education as Visiting Professor 1996-2007. In 1987, he pursued doctoral study at the London Institute of Education, in the realm of education policy and planning. His current attention is on the fundamental changes in society and their challenges to education, and focuses on learning as the core business of education. Recently, he is also involved in discussions about education reforms in the US, and is on the International Advisory Board of the National Council for Education and the Economy. Currently, he is member of the National Advisory Committee on Curriculum Reform in China. Locally he was member of the Education Commission and was instrumental in the comprehensive reform which started 1999. He is among the initiators of “Education 2.1”, an advocacy for reforms in education in Hong Kong. He publishes extensively, and has delivered over 200 keynotes in international meetings. He writes columns in Hong Kong Economic Journal Daily, Shanghai Education and Escuela (Spain).
Liping Xiao is a Senior Education Specialist of the World Bank Office, Beijing. She is responsible for coordinating the Bank's operations and analytical work in education in China. As a senior education specialist, Liping's professional interests lie principally in basic education, vocational education and teacher education. In addition to research activities, she ever managed the Bank’s Youth Engagement Program, involved in the implementation of the Basic Education Project, designed and implemented the Vocational Education and Training Projects, Skill Development for Migrant Workers and School Reconstruction of Earthquake Recovery Project. She also managed some technical assistance operations on teacher policy, migrant children, quality assessment for basic education, and early child development.
Prior to joining the World Bank, she worked in the Ministry of Education for policy-making research and was responsible for Campus Recruitment Program in a Human Resource Company. Liping holds a Ph.D. in Psychology from Beijing Normal University and an EMBA from Nanyang Technology University of Singapore.
Mingxing Liu is Deputy Director and Professor at China Institute for Educational Finance Research, Peking University. His research interests include China's elite politics, economic growth, and fiscal system. His ongoing projects include one that examines how elite coalition building in Chinese legislature affects the education policy making and local implementation. He has published numerous academic articles in international and Chinese journals such as the American Political Science Review, Comparative Politics, Political Behavior, and China Quarterly.
Ning Fu is a World Bank Education Specialist based in Beijing where he supports the Bank’s ongoing lending activities, contributes to client dialogue, and helps extend the Bank’s reach in China. Before working in China, Ning was also involved in the design and implementation of broader human development activities for the Bank’s Africa region: youth employment programs, social safety nets, and labor market analyses. Ning has both public and private sector experience. Prior to joining the Bank, he worked as a researcher at the IMF. A Chinese national, Ning holds a Master of Public Administration in International Development from Harvard University.
Po Yang is Associate Professor at Graduate School of Education, Peking University. She is a Research Associate at China Institute for Education Finance Research. Her research interests include economics of education, education finance, vocational education and student financial aid. At present, she involves in projects related to comparative analysis of national skill formation system, and skill shortage management. She receives research grants from National Science Foundation, National Social Science Foundation, Ford Foundation, and Ministry of Education. She publishes widely in peer reviewed international and domestic journals.
Rong Wang is the Director and Professor of China Institute for Educational Finance Research (CIEFR), Peking University. She has a Ph.D. in education from the University of California, Berkeley. Her major research interests include education finance, economics of education and education policy. She is currently the Chairwoman of the Association of Education Finance, Chinese Society of Educational Development Strategy, and Deputy Director of China Democratic League Education Committee. She is also the youngest member of China’s State Education Advisory Committee. Professor Wang has chaired a number of research projects commissioned by Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, and international projects cooperated with World Bank and UN agencies, etc. She has published Public Education Explanation, Comparative Studies of Public Educational Expenditure Statistics and Policy Advisory Reports Regarding China’s Education Finance. Meanwhile, she is the author of numerous articles on the financing of education and educational reform.
Weifang MIN has been the Executive President of Chinese Society for Education Development Strategies since June 2012. Concurrently, he serves as Professor and Director of the Institute of Higher Education and the Institute of Economics of Education at Peking University, Head of the Academic Program Evaluation Teams for Public Administration of the State Council Academic Commission of China, Team Leader for Educational Economics and Administration of China Education Research Planning Leadership Group, UNESCO Chair Professor on Higher Education in the Asia Pacific. Weifang MIN received his Ph.D. in Economics of Education in 1987 from Stanford University. He was promoted to full professorship at Peking University in 1991 and became Executive Vice President of Peking University in 1996. He served as Chairman of Peking University Council from 2002 until 2011. His academic fields include economics of education, educational administration and policy analysis, higher education, and international comparative education. He has been principal investigator for more than 20 national and international education research projects, and has published more than 100 journal articles, books, conference papers.
Xiaoyan Liang is a Lead Education Specialist in the World Bank. Dr. Liang joined the World Bank formally as a Young Professional in 1998 after graduating from Harvard University with a Doctor of Education Degree. Since then, she has led policy dialogue, research, and the World Bank’s education programs in Africa, Latin America, and East Asia countries. Ms. Liang has solid education policy research, program development, and implementation expertise in early childhood education, technical and vocational and higher education, education finance, and teacher development. She is widely published. Her most recent analytical work include “Challenges and Opportunities in Early Childhood Education in Yunnan” and “Developing Skills for Economic Transformation and Social Harmony in China”. She is also the lead author of the well-received World Bank’s “How Shanghai Does It: Insights and Lessons from the Highest-Ranking Education System in the World” report.
Ms. Liang is currently the World Bank’s Africa Regional Team Leader for the East and Southern Africa Higher Education Centers of Excellence Project, Skills for Africa Transformation and Regional Integration, and the Partnership for Applied Science, Engineering, and Technology (PASET). Prior to that, she was the team leader for World Bank’s education programs in China, Malaysia, Korea.
Ms. Liang is passionate and committed to education development and to facilitating education partnership between East Asia, Africa, and other countries.
Yidan Wang is a Senior Education Specialist in the World Bank’s Education Global Practice. She leads the Education Staff Development Program (ESDP), the flagship training program within the World Bank Group which has become the core program for developing education-related technical competencies and skills for World Bank staff, development partners and policymakers. Her areas of expertise include capacity building and training, skills development, vocational and technical education, secondary education, public-private partnerships and decentralization. Her work experience spans across Africa, East and South Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Middle East and North Africa, and the Pacific for over 25 years. Wang has authored and co-authored several books and articles, including “Education in a Changing World: Flexibility, Skills, and Employability,” which was translated into Chinese and has been cited widely in the media in Australia, China and the United States. She holds a Ph.D. in International Education and Development from the University of Pittsburgh.
Yingquan Song is Associate Professor at China Institute for Educational Finance Research. He has a Ph.D in Education Economics from the University of California, Berkeley. He has been dedicated to researches in the access and quality of early childhood education for disadvantaged groups, provision of compulsory education for migrant children and the left-behind children. He has expertise in program evaluation and policy impact evaluation. He has been a Principal Investigator for various research projects sponsored by Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Education in China, The World Bank, UNICEF, China National Science Foundation and Social Science Foundation. He has published numerous academic articles in international journals including Social Science Research, Economics of Education Review, China Economics Review, Journal of Development Economics, Journal of Comparative Economics, Comparative Education Review, World Bank Economic Review, Economic Development and Cultural Change as well as Chinese journals such us Peking University Education Review, China Economics of Education Review, etc.